Encyclopedia of knowledge
Stone lofting and stone color typesetting knowledge
All the colleagues who have been on the construction site know how important it is to combine the design drawings and the actual size of the site to organize the lofting work of the blanking drawings or lists!
Today, I will learn about the knowledge of stone lofting with you.
In the participation of the personnel involved in the lofting work, it is best to let the technical personnel of the stone processing factory assist the construction team in the lofting process, and jointly negotiate and resolve the lofting method and measurement method.
· Preparation before staking
1. First, finalize the basic design drawings
2. Civil work (including internal partition walls) has been completed
3. Determination of level and elevation
4. Determine the position of the door and window frame
5. Make the bathroom waterproof and determine the finished surface
6. The stone installation plan should be clear
· Lofting – Exterior Wall
Before setting out, you must be familiar with the design drawings, see the plan, elevation, and section node diagrams, and understand the parts that need to be processed and the installation method of the stone;
In principle, when setting out, the steel frame has been completed, and it will be more accurate to measure the size of the stone according to the steel frame, because the steel frame is more accurate than the civil construction, and the steel frame is a relatively accurate measurement standard. nuclear.
Loft dimensions include plane dimensions and height dimensions.
When measuring the plane size, it is based on the outside of the steel frame. According to the plan, it is divided into multiple relatively independent areas according to different elevations, and the areas are numbered sequentially according to the counterclockwise direction of the plan;
The size of the window line and the side panel must be combined with the large sample of the window frame node, and the flatness of the window frame installation must be measured at multiple points. The positioning size of the doors and windows is also very important;
The division and layout of the stone should first refer to the customer’s design specifications and dimensions, and combine the position of the doors and windows to make appropriate adjustments to the plate specifications, not only considering the stone yield, but also to ensure the overall effect of the design.
It is recommended to use a plate pressing plate or leave the chicken beak for the treatment plan of the outer corner. It is recommended to use a plate pressing plate for the inner corner and add an appropriate margin to the pressed side.
Seams are generally required for exterior wall construction, and the specific data is determined according to the design requirements. In the typesetting and division, it is necessary to consider the size of the stone blanking after leaving the seams.
· Stakeout – lobby floor and wall
The lobby is the most critical part of an interior decoration project. The decoration effect must be ensured, the best materials should be used, and the lofting and layout effects should also be the best.
The floor and wall of the lobby should be combined and set out. Generally, the wall should be placed first, then the ground; the construction is also to install the wall first and then the ground, mainly to facilitate the protection of the decoration surface;
There are two ways to install the lobby wall, wet hanging and dry hanging; small projects use wet hanging more, and now the proportion of dry hanging is increasing;
Wet hanging saves space and saves construction costs;
The method of laying out the wall of the dry hanging is basically the same as that of the external wall. First, the finished surface line of the wall is put out on the ground with an ink fountain line, and then the measurement is carried out;
Draw the drawings of each elevation separately according to the plane size, the position of the horizontal line and the ceiling, the position of doors and windows, and the position of the fire hydrant.
The importance of the datum line, the function of the datum line when setting out is to facilitate the measurement of the size; the layout is relatively more important than the construction datum, and the ground layout generally adds appropriate margins in the appropriate corners;
In order to ensure the decorative effect, the benchmark of construction is the starting point of installation, which should be consistent with the typesetting benchmark as much as possible. The construction personnel should communicate with the setting-out personnel during the process of setting out and typesetting, and the specific position of the construction starting point and the additional allowance should be unified. .
The size of the main specifications should be reasonably determined during the floor layout. The first consideration should be given to deepening the design advice, followed by the yield of stone materials;
The parts in the height direction of the wall are mainly designed and adjusted appropriately according to the site elevation;
The parts in the length direction are divided reasonably according to the overall size of each facade, and the position of doors and windows is considered.
· Lofting – Elevator Room
The elevator room belongs to the public area of the hotel, where the flow of people is relatively concentrated, and the requirements for stone and decorative effects are relatively high.
The shape of the elevator room is generally a relatively regular rectangle, the area is not large, and the processing and construction requirements of the stone are also high, and the wall and the ground are required to be natural and integrated.
The lofting of the wall and the ground should be carried out at the same time. The decorative stone in the elevator room mainly includes the ground specification board and wave play, the ground parquet, the skirting line, the wall specification board, the waist line, the ceiling line, the elevator door cover line, etc.
The lofting method is similar to the lobby lofting method. The finished surface line of the stone wall should be released first, and the side panel of the elevator entrance and the finished surface of the line should also be released to achieve accurate positioning.
From the design point of view, it can simplify the processing and construction. The function of the door cover is to close the door. If the elevator door cover can be designed as a relatively independent shape, the lofting will be simple.
Therefore, we must carefully digest the design drawings, and properly adjust the closing scheme without changing the design effect, so that the lofting is easier to operate.
The elevator room of the Wynn Macau in the picture below is a special case. In the design scheme, the elevator door cover line and the skirting line are designed to be the same shape, and they must be spliced at a 45-degree angle, and the entire wall is connected into a whole. The size is required to be accurate. It reduces the difficulty of lofting, processing and installation.
The elevator room of the Wynn Macau △
During the lofting process, we should pay attention to the large sample of the nodes, such as the meeting between the door casing line and the wall and side panels, as well as the meeting between the skirting line and the wall panel, and the large sample of the ceiling line. It is necessary to comprehensively consider the convenience of processing and installation. Choose the most reasonable node graph.
· Hotel project stone lofting: bathroom
The bathroom is a place with a large amount of stone. Generally, the standard room of the hotel is mainly made of stone in the bathroom. We must understand the functions of the sanitary ware and supporting facilities in the bathroom to better complete the lofting work.
The high-end bathrooms of larger hotels are divided into 3 small areas, including bathroom, toilet and shower room.
It is mainly divided according to the function: the bathroom is equipped with a bathtub and a sink, the toilet includes a toilet and a toilet, and the shower room is a separate shower room.
The walls and floors of toilets and shower rooms are generally made of stone. In the bathroom, except for the wash-basin countertops, bathtub countertops and vertical panels, most of the floors are made of stone. The walls will not be all made of stone. The face stone is the waistline, wall skirt and foot line.
Of course, this is just a routine practice. We must deal with it according to the design drawings. First, we must find out the specific parts of all the stone materials, and then carry out line measurement in different areas.
The toilet and shower room are relatively independent, and the area is also small, and the wall and floor can be measured uniformly; the bathroom is relatively complicated, and the bathtub countertop and the washbasin need to be combined and set out together.
In the process of setting out the bathroom, it is necessary to know the information of the relevant sanitary ware, and the matching stone of the bathtub and the sink must be processed according to the size of the corresponding sanitary ware;
For the bathtub, it is necessary to know the relationship between the countertop and the bathtub and the size of the bathtub, whether the sink is an on-counter basin or an under-counter basin, and the size and location of the opening are very critical, including the size of the water pipe of the faucet and the size of the opening, and the information must be complete.
The threshold stone is used for closing, and it can only be determined accurately after the door frame is installed. If it is a stone door cover, the cutting size can be determined according to the design size.
· Hotel project stone setting out: Cylinder
Columns are relatively independent decorative stone products. Most of the columns are independent columns, consisting of a column head, a column body and a column base; some of the columns in the lobby are connected to the horse racing gallery.
The civil works of the cylinder are either round or square. Before setting out, you must check the civil works drawings and decorative design drawings, find the civil works size and the size of the finished decorative surface of the cylinder, and see the node diagram to understand the construction method.
The plane size of the square civil construction can be measured directly with a tape measure. Considering the inevitable existence of civil construction errors, several points can be appropriately selected for measurement according to the height of the civil construction column;
Visually judge the size of the error. If necessary, it is best to put the finished stone decoration surface on the ground, or fix a wooden mold (the finished surface) on the top of the column, and use a hanging hammer to check the distance from the finished surface to the civil work (that is, check the column. verticality), combined with the construction node diagram to judge whether the construction space is sufficient.
For circular civil works, a tape measure can be used to measure the perimeter of the civil cylinder, then calculate the diameter, and finally use the finished surface to test.
The height of the cylinder is another key parameter. It is inaccurate to measure the civil engineering directly. It needs to be measured according to the elevation and the horizontal line of the site. The elevation of the bottom surface of the column base generally has a horizontal line that can be referenced for calculation. The elevation of the upper end surface of the column head should be checked in the drawings of the ceiling, and a reference point can be found on the civil wall for measurement.
According to the large sample of the stigma and the ceiling and the interface between the stigma and the ground, judge whether to increase the margin in height. When the horse racing gallery is connected with the columns, the reasonable contact between the arc plate of the column body and the horse racing gallery should be considered in combination with the section of the horse racing gallery, which is convenient for processing and construction;
The height of the column body can be considered by dividing the column body into three sections.
The parts in the circumferential direction should be divided reasonably according to the diameter and the processing characteristics of the arc plate, and it is recommended that the circular part of the arc plate be divided into four pieces for the civil construction.
· Hotel project stone lofting: curved wall
The arc wall is divided into two cases: inner arc visible light and outer arc visible light: when the smooth surface is an inner arc, in the case of one radius, we can use the chord length and the arch height to calculate the radius, in the case of multiple radii, We must use the coordinate system to determine the radii of the joints and segments of different radii.
When the smooth surface is an outer arc, we must use the coordinate system to fix the point. When taking the point, we must find a few more points. When measuring, it must be perpendicular to the axis we set. Then use three points to draw the arc, and finally choose the best radius;
The arc wall should be processed with an arc of one radius as far as possible, or connected with as few arc segments as possible. The arc should be processed immediately after setting out. Check it out to make sure it’s accurate.
The lofting of the special-shaped arc plate is more difficult:
The upper and lower end faces of the ordinary arc plate are two parallel and equal sectors, and the sides on both sides of the side are parallel line segments;
The upper and lower end surfaces of the conical arc plate are two parallel but unequal concentric sectors, and the sides are two line segments that can be extended and intersected;
The difference between the special-shaped arc plate is that the two sides are different-plane line segments that are not in the same plane.
For the lofting of special-shaped arc slabs, we must first find out the design rules of the arc wall, divide the arc wall into areas, and set out in sections. Generally, several appropriate elevations are used to set out the outline of the civil construction or steel frame, or you can directly Release the finished surface line of the stone;
At the same time, it should be noted that the mutual positional relationship of the completed surfaces of each level requires that the shape of the arc wall can be accurately described on the computer.
For this special prduct, the requirements for lofting, processing and construction are more closely matched. The benchmark is very important, and the consistency must be strictly guaranteed.
· Hotel project stone setting out: spiral ladder
The data that needs to be surveyed and mapped for the stair lofting are mainly the plane size of the stairs and the elevation of each part; according to the lofting data, it is necessary to be able to draw the stair civil works and the floor plan of the finished surface, as well as each elevation drawing (including the stair blocking the river) inside and outside).
First, carefully digest the drawings, including stair civil drawings and decorative design drawings, and calculate the width (including the inside and outside) and height of each step from the civil drawings;
Learn about stair treads and river blocks through decorative design drawings.
The measurement method of the plane size of the spiral staircase is to use the plumb hanging line on the ground, select as many points as possible to project the edge contour of the staircase civil work on the ground, and then according to the size of the node diagram, put the finished surface line of the stone on the outside (and inside) of the barrage on the ground. Release the ground.
Taking into account the civil engineering error, in the process of placing the completed surface line, the arc can be transitioned as smoothly as possible, and the completed surface can be made with as few arcs as possible to ensure the decorative effect.
Determine the starting point and end point of each rotation position on the inner and outer finishing surface lines, and use the platform as the dividing point. When determining the starting point and ending point, the intersection of the completed surface line of the stepping stand and the inner side of the river should be used as the dividing point. The top and bottom levels of the stairs need to be considered. If the civil construction steps are not standard, it is necessary to negotiate with the construction personnel to determine a reasonable starting point and end point when adjusting during the construction process.
To determine the elevation, measure the layer height according to the horizontal waterline. If there is a platform between layers, the elevation of the platform needs to be determined.
(Equally divide the step height of each level according to the elevation, and the obtained step height needs to be in line with whether the civil construction step is sufficient; it is best to make all the steps the same height, if not, at least ensure that the height of each running step is the same.)
According to the measured data, draw a drawing of the finished surface of the stair decoration. The floor plan includes the river barrier and the finished surface of the step. It is best to draw the foundation line of the civil works on the same drawing; the elevation drawing should also be completely drawn, and there are A large sample drawing of the nodes; if the stairs also need to be processed with handrails or vase columns and closing columns, they should also be drawn together.
Reasonable determination of the stair blocking plan, the plan and the elevation are combined and divided into parts. Generally, the parts are divided according to the steps, one in two steps or one in three steps;
According to the conventional construction practices of some well-known installation companies, the river blocking should take one step forward to ensure that the blocking height at the platform is consistent with the blocking height at the climbing site. The vertical height of the junction of the riser.
The processing of the stair closing is the key and difficult point, especially at the interface between the inner river and the platform. Due to the relatively large height change, the rapid turning and the difficulty in processing, we must carefully consider it when setting out, and will close the opening. The processing plan is carefully communicated with the construction personnel.
No matter how reasonable we design, if the construction is not installed according to our intention, there will be problems, so we must communicate in advance to ensure the consistency of processing and construction.
· How to make color typesetting of stone?
In the stone deepening order, for the stone veneer with distinct patterns or the precious stone texture treatment, the color stone layout map is handed over to the manufacturer for processing, which can achieve the purpose of controlling the final stone pattern effect.
So why do you have to use color typography? Can the project department find it troublesome to use the stone layout plan instead? (no)
It is extremely difficult to guarantee the effect of expensive stone textures and patterns in key areas/key shapes only through the “layout map”, and cannot give Party A “look and feel confirmation”.
Fish maw white stone color layout △